The 6.3-magnitude earthquake may have been an aftershock of the 7.1-magnitude 4 September 2010 Canterbury earthquake. [255], The Christchurch earthquake of 2011 had widespread mental health effects on the population. Twelve Japanese students from the Toyama College of Foreign Languages died in the building collapse. forces generated by the earthquake. This fault line crosses through the South Island of New Zealand. It excluded the investigation of any questions of liability, the earthquake search and rescue effort, and the rebuilding of the city. [227] The Crusaders played their entire home schedule away from Christchurch,. [229] The team's round three match against the Northern Mystics in Auckland was postponed,[229] while their round four home match against the Waikato Bay of Plenty Magic was moved to the Energy Events Centre in Rotorua. The station collapsed on 13 June 2011 after a magnitude 6.0 aftershock. They took into account a technical investigation undertaken by the Department of Building and Housing. They also provided forensic analysis and evidence gathering at fatalities and Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) teams, working closely with pathologists, forensic dentists and scientists, and the coroner at the emergency mortuary established at Burnham Military Camp. [7] Due to the injuries sustained some bodies remained unidentified. Water and wastewater services were disrupted throughout the city, with authorities urging residents to conserve water and collect rainwater. EQC chief executive Ian Simpson said that the $4 billion cap for each earthquake is unlikely to be exceeded by the costs of residential building and land repairs, so $3 billion would be left in the EQC's Natural Disaster Fund after payouts. A clustered sequence of earthquakes beginning with the 1994 M w 6.7 Arthurs Pass earthquake and including the 1994 M w 6.0, 1995 M w 6.0, and 1995 M w 6.2 Cass earthquakes occurred with epicentres < 40 km apart in the eastern Southern Alps (Fig. Evidence from research on the Christchurch earthquakes reveals that increased trauma exposure is not exclusively correlated with negative outcomes. [127][128][129][130][131] Many of them received standing ovations from appreciative locals as they walked through Christchurch Airport upon arrival. The report is a literature review of the published material related to the recovery from the Canterbury earthquake sequence, and provides a whole of government perspective on the lessons from the Government’s recovery efforts. Home; Starting on: 4 September 2010; 22 February 2011; 13 June 2011; 23 December 2011; Big Quakes ; Largest 25; Latest 25; Today; Past week; Other Maps; Daily Energy Release; FAQs / Help; About; Daily Energy Release. We will be working alongside them to give as much relief and assistance to New Zealand as we possibly can. Rescue efforts continued for over a week, then shifted into recovery mode. With extra passenger and freight movements over Cook Strait following the earthquake, the company would have been unable to cope with just two ships operating on a reduced schedule so soon after the earthquake, so pushed back the departure to the end of April. [205], On the day of the earthquake, the main secondary school teachers' union, the Post Primary Teachers Association, had arranged a paid union meeting to be held that afternoon for members in the Christchurch area. [103], The quake was felt as far north as Tauranga[104] and as far south as Invercargill, where the 111 emergency network was rendered out of service. [105], At the Tasman Glacier some 200 kilometres (120 miles) from the epicentre, around 30 million tonnes (33 million ST) of ice tumbled off the glacier into Tasman Lake, hitting tour boats with tsunami waves 3.5 metres (11 ft) high. [64] Search of the building was technically difficult for USAR teams, requiring the deconstruction of 4-tonne stair sets, but the building was cleared with no victims discovered.[65]. [136] It was equipped to provide triage, emergency care, maternity, dental care, isolation tents for gastroenteritis, and to provide primary care since most general practices in the area were unable to open. [147] Over 1400 Army, Navy and Air Force personnel were involved,[148] and Territorials (Army Reserve) were called up. Greater Christchurch Group has released its Whole of Government report on the lessons from the Canterbury earthquake sequence. The 6.3-magnitude earthquake may have been an aftershock of the 7.1-magnitude 4 September 2010 Canterbury earthquake.New Zealand's GNS Science has stated that the earthquake was part of the aftershock sequence that has been occurring since the September magnitude-7.1 quake, however a seismologist from Geoscience Australia … The cost of the rebuild is set to be $16 million. The largest was a 5.9-magnitude tremor which occurred just under two hours after the main earthquake. [166][167] Mains water supply was re-established to 70% of households within one week. Christchurch Police were supplemented by staff and resources from around the country, along with a 323-strong contingent of Australian Police, who were sworn in as New Zealand Police on their arrival, bringing the total number of officers in the city to 1200. It was followed by a large aftershock on 13 June (which caused considerable additional damage) and a series of large shocks on 23 December 2011. Significant liquefaction affected the eastern suburbs, producing around 400,000 tonnes of silt. Ground water measurements from 1,000+ piezometers Airborne LIDAR and high resolution imagery following multiple earthquakes Recordings from 20 strong motion stations across Christchurch in multiple earthquakes … Latest earthquake is #25940 being magnitude 2.43 ( II) at 33.12 km at 12:10am, about 23 hr 8 mins ago. The total number of claims for the two events was expected to be 250,000, as Brownlee explained that many of the claims were "overlapping". The M 6.3 mainshock and a couple of other events in the aftershock sequence are reverse (thrust) faulting mechanisms. The humble domestic concrete slab is a very important component in getting things right first time. Some government departments and church groups provided grants and assistance. Regional … The EQC pays out the first NZ$1.5 billion in claims, and the reinsurance companies are liable for all amounts between NZ$1.5 billion and NZ$4 billion. But when the magnitude 7.1 Darfield earthquake came on September 4, 2010, it went beyond all that. The Anglican Church decided to demolish the building and replace it with a new structure, but various groups opposed the church's intentions, with actions including taking a case to court. [14][15] The peak ground acceleration (PGA) was extremely high, and simultaneous vertical and horizontal ground movement was "almost impossible" for buildings to survive intact. [262] The displacement of large numbers of citizens following a trauma poses as a problem for researchers of natural disasters. [178], Various sporting events were set up to raise money, such as the "Fill the Basin" cricket match at the Basin Reserve, featuring ex-New Zealand internationals, All Blacks and actors from The Hobbit, which raised more than $500,000. There is evidence that suggests that the mental health effects of natural disasters can be debilitating and detrimental to the community affected.[256][257][258][259][260][261][262]. One P-3 Orion was deployed in the initial stages of the disaster to provide images and photographs of the city. [62] The reinforced concrete building had been constructed in 1963–1964. Three RNZAF Beechcraft Super King Air aircraft were also used to evacuate people from Christchurch. [219] The plans were confirmed in February 2013, with seven schools closing, 10 schools merging into five (not including the overturned Phillipstown-Woolston merger), and three high schools taking on additional year levels. [173], Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard offered Australia's assistance. 380,000) was hit by four major earthquakes and thousands of aftershocks. It was caused by another unknown hidden fault, which didn’t rupture at the surface but which moved land both sideways and vertically. [230] AMI Stadium was going to host the rugby league ANZAC Test, however, on 4 March it was announced the match would be moved to Skilled Park on the Gold Coast. [108], The earthquake combined with the urgency created by the unseasonably early break-up of sea ice on the Ross Ice Shelf caused logistical problems with the return of Antarctic summer season research operations from Scott Base and McMurdo Station in Antarctica to Christchurch. [256] Because large number of citizens are being displaced, it is difficult to find a representative sample population. Positive effects, such as a greater sense of community connection, can aide in helping the community heal as a whole. On 13 June 2011 a magnitude 6.3 earthquake struck Christchurch at a depth of 6 kilometres (3.7 mi). A composite "Christchurch Response Centre" was established in the Christchurch Art Gallery, a modern earthquake-resilient building in the centre of the city which had sustained only minor damage. [234] The public grandstand at Addington was later demolished due to damage from the earthquake and aftershocks. The Christchurch earthquake in September the 4th 2010 and its aftershocks were caused by plate tectonics such as these, the two plates involved collided in an transverse collision. [138][139] [93][94], Landslides occurred in Sumner, crushing buildings. ?‹9HSÄjÿ°Ý¹Bmw¥üq¦ÆveJ1ëÜ!‡nCô’¸*i™ÚêOÇ!ŽÚYuŠìµ°ÿ>]!Onh©»œ!ï¼BÜfÑ]ˆWæ1…±‰’’¸DXK}-"¦'¦jÁ8Oþl”ü/ˆ¼Y|ïòÀ¹…ðÒ;ò3Áú0ämH¤çÓ Wúš°•Cþ‰Ør=0qkç(§R£áTŠVR)#*±›ÌŽ’ñZjpÐË!jr"­Ö杂o¬&Ó †´ QòUj[ÀV->†®?ÕÑѕÅê1u‹È9ò:Ë\³˜i<>-”ÎOæ^ª#²Ü€ÁCk»… Z­ìڎç#qf’Ð~\öyGÑNœÃú¢ íÙ …ï§2ƒ¥ øtTî®×ûmBÆæþðz#‰ì. (2014). Marshall, E.M., Frazier, P., Frankfurt, S., & Kuijer, R.G. The west wall suffered collapses in the June 2011 earthquake and the December 2011 quake[66] due to a steel structure – intended to stabilise the rose window – pushing it in. "[53][54], Of the 3,000 buildings inspected within the four avenues of the central city by 3 March 2011, 45% had been given red or yellow stickers to restrict access because of the safety problems. [121] A full response management structure was put in place within minutes of the quake, with the Christchurch City Council's alternate Emergency Operations Centre re-established in the City Art Gallery and the regional Canterbury CDEM Group Emergency Coordination Centre (ECC) activated in its post-earthquake operational facility adjacent to the Canterbury Regional Council offices. Site-sharing plans were made to enable affected schools to relocate, while 9 "learning hubs" were established throughout the city to provide resources and support for students needing to work from home. [DOI: 10.1193/030113EQS060M] INTRODUCTION The 2010–2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence includes the 4 September 2010 Mw7.1 Darfield earthquake (e.g., Gledhill et al. An additional 28 people were killed in various places across the city centre, and twelve were killed in suburban Christchurch. For personal effects, EQC pays out the first NZ$20,000 plus tax. "[119] It was only the second time that New Zealand had declared a national civil defence emergency; the first occasion was the 1951 waterfront dispute. [189] All Black Sonny Bill Williams and Sky Television both made large donations from Williams' fourth boxing bout which was dubbed "The Clash For Canterbury". Researchers are unable to reliably compare an individual's mental health status to their health status previous to the trauma because they must rely on retrospective self-report. [20] By comparison, the 2010 quake—in which damage was predominantly to pre-1970s buildings—exerted 65% of the design loading on buildings. Studying earthquakes has shown to be a difficult task when considering all the limitations created by natural disasters. [98] The Shag Rock, a notable landmark, was reduced to half of its former height. A state of local emergency was initially declared by the Mayor of Christchurch, which was superseded when the government declared a state of national emergency, which stayed in force until 30 April 2011. [12][21], The peak ground acceleration (PGA) in central Christchurch exceeded 1.8g (i.e. [149] They were supplemented by 116 soldiers from the Singapore Army, in Christchurch for a training exercise at the time of the earthquake, who assisted in the cordon of the city. [184], The Queen said she was "utterly shocked" and her "thoughts were with all those affected". Before Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (2010) Christchurch, New Zealand Backdrop. The 2011 Inter Dominion harness racing series was scheduled to be held at Addington Raceway in March and April however the series was instead contested in Auckland. Porirua, Upper Hutt, and Lower Hutt, all outside of the Wellington City Council area, are included in the Wellington main urban area definition. [68] By mid-2019 early design and stabilisation work had begun. The Canterbury earthquake sequence is an on-going earthquake sequence, which started with the M7.1 Darfield earthquake on 4 September 2010. ", "Help for Christchurch businesses and workers after earthquake", "Painstaking work continues at devastated buildings", "1240 central Christchurch buildings demolished video", "Christchurch earthquake: Heartbreaking messages from buried daughter", "Christchurch quake toll 75, dozens missing", "Christchurch Earthquake: Workers trapped in crushed buildings", "Day 03 field report from the Christchurch 22 Feb 2011 6.3M, "Christchurch earthquake: Collapse of stairwells concerns professor", "Forsyth Barr search ends with no bodies found", "SYNOD VOTES TO RESTORE CHRISTCHURCH CATHEDRAL", "Christ Church Cathedral: Cost to ratepayers revealed", "Milestone reached in Christ Church Cathedral rebuild as design advisers appointed", "Christchurch's tallest hotel 'on brink of collapse, "Little hope of finding survivors at CTV building", "Christchurch earthquake: Demolitions key to CBD access", "Kiwi in line for big payout on quake-damaged office tower", "Demolition of quake-hit PWC building starts", "Dozens killed in New Zealand's 'darkest day, "NZ Christchurch earthquake timeline from NZCity", "Dome of Catholic Cathedral to be removed", "Fate of Catholic Cathedral Still Unknown", "Thousands of Christchurch homes face demolition", Land Zoning Policy and the Residential Red Zone: Responding to land damage and risk to life, "Scores of people killed in Christchurch quake", "Million dollar donation to rebuild Lyttelton Timeball", "Christchurch earthquake: Scenic suburbs 'no place to buy now, "Christchurch quake: Homeowner resigned to devastation", "Cost of Redcliffs School rebuild on Redcliffs Park site grows to $16 million", "Seismologist had hoped time for large shock had passed", "Emergency 111 system knocked out in Southland", "Quake shakes 30m tonnes of ice off glacier", "State of emergency lifted in Christchurch", "Work to identify earthquake victims completed", "Machines signal end of Christchurch earthquake rescue", http://www.police.govt.nz/sites/default/files/publications/christchurch-earthquake-fatalities-locations-map.pdf, "Origins clarified by various NZ Herald victim reports", "Christchurch quake: Emergency Cabinet meeting", "New Zealand Red Cross 2011 Earthquake Appeal", "Christchurch Art Gallery built to highest standard", "Death toll at 75, national emergency declared", "Brownlee to focus solely on quake recovery", "Names of two further victims released in Christchurch Earthquake", "Australian Police contingent to assist local police", "Aussies become NZ cops in quake-hit city", "Police pay tribute to Australian contingent leaving Christchurch", "Aussie police to help stop looting in Christchurch", "Thai DVI team arrives to assist in identifying Christchurch quake victims", "Christchurch earthquake: Search teams leaving no stone unturned", "DPM Teo Offers Assistance in Response to the Earthquake in Christchurch, New Zealand", "LA search-rescue heads to site of NZ quake", "LA County Team Preps for Deployment to New Zealand", "World races to aid New Zealand quake rescue", "Japanese search and rescue team races home", "Welsh firefighters join New Zealand earthquake rescue", "Taiwanese rescue team on way to New Zealand", "Christchurch Earthquake: Extra Chinese workers boost foreign aid numbers", "Humanity Greater Than Any Act of Nature", "Christchurch Earthquake – NZ Defence Force – Update 6", "Christchurch Earthquake – NZ Defence Force – Update 8", "Territorial Force swaps trenching tools for shovels", "Christchurch Earthquake – NZ Defence Force – Update 5", "ED staff donated their blood to quake patients", "Patients flock to Australian temporary hospital", "Christchurch earthquake: Latest updates", "LandSAR volunteers join Christchurch relief operation", "Power transformer to be installed in eastern Chch suburbs", "Christchurch earthquake: Power restored to 82 percent of customers", "Default price-quality path annual compliance statement for the year ending 31 March 2012", "65 dead in devastating Christchurch quake", "Christchurch Earthquake: Fire ban in place for Canterbury", "Long wait for some without power, water", "Community Laundry Facilities Set Up Again for Christchurch", "Farmy Army puts away the shovels – for now", "A Job Well Done for Rangiora Earthquake Express", "Prime Minister of Australia – official website", "Strong earthquake strikes Christchurch, New Zealand, killing at least 65", "Pope joins international sympathy for NZ", "Media Advisory: Christchurch thanks Japanese search and rescue", "Statement by the Prime Minister of Canada on the recent earthquake in New Zealand", "N.Z. [92] The town's historic Timeball Station was extensively damaged, adding to damage from the preceding earthquake in September 2010. Each individual can react differently to traumatic events, and more research needs to be done to learn how to predict vulnerability and access the effects to find solutions that work best. [256][257] This information is important to consider when reacting to future earthquakes and other natural disasters. Canada is standing by to offer any possible assistance to New Zealand in responding to this natural disaster. On Wednesday morning, 22 hours after the quake, a survivor was pulled from the rubble. [64] The building was thought to be irreparably damaged and have the potential to bring down other buildings if it fell; an area of a two-block radius around the hotel was thus evacuated. A (M) 6.3 earthquake (the Christchurch Earthquake) occurred on 22 February 2011. [2] The earthquake struck the Canterbury region in New Zealand's South Island and was centred 6.7 kilometres (4.2 mi) south-east of the centre of Christchurch,[10] New Zealand's second-most populous city. [258][262] Those with relatively high exposure to earthquake damage show an increase in positive effects, including an increase in personal strength, growth in social relationships, the bringing of families closer, and realizing what's important in life. [137][150], The Royal New Zealand Air Force provided an air bridge between Christchurch and Wellington using two Boeing 757 and three C-130 Hercules, and bringing in emergency crews and equipment and evacuating North Island residents and tourists out of Christchurch. Subsequent population loss saw the Christchurch main urban area fall behind the Wellington equivalent to decrease from second to third most populous area in New Zealand. [76][77], The Carlton Hotel, a listed heritage building, was undergoing repairs after the September 2010 earthquake damage when the February 2011 earthquake damaged the building further. Welfare Centres and support networks were established throughout the city. The remainder of the tower was demolished in March 2012. [46] Soil liquefaction and surface flooding also occurred. [236] Much of the NZ$90 million cost of the 2011 census was written off. Following the damaging 4 Sept 2010 Mw7.1 Darfield Earthquake, the 22 Feb 2011 Christchurch Earthquake and subsequent damaging aftershocks, we completed a liquefaction hazard evaluation for c. 2700 km2 of the coastal Canterbury region. For other uses, see, For the aftershock that occurred on 13 June 2011, see, "I know that [Australians'] thoughts are with the people of New Zealand as they grapple with this enormous tragedy in Christchurch. [125], Gerry Brownlee, a Cabinet Minister, had his regular portfolios distributed amongst other cabinet ministers so that he could focus solely on earthquake recovery.[126]. [91] Two people died on local walking tracks after being hit by rockfalls. In April 2013 the Government estimated the total cost of the rebuild would be as much as $40 billion, up from an earlier estimate of $30 billion. A second team of 70 from Queensland, Queensland Task Force 1, (including three sniffer dogs),was sent the following day on board a RAAF C-17 . ÓÜhO;ø¿ŸÕ^?=}(\ÓRŽkg˜¾Gò4wôM˜§1Wuã£Fœ’x!ù> …ðÐZn hóìÏbõ&¦³9}wn…˜Dà§"saÀºQÿL•¾6wŸrߟ©ùÜH„W¹ÿ#ÔÃ0©¡[úÝh¹ºá|Yï2 ó±*°%å Over the course of a week, LandSAR teams visited 67,000 premises. [24] The acceleration occurred mainly in a vertical direction,[16] with eyewitness accounts of people being tossed into the air. A decision was made to remove the dome because the supporting structure was weakened. [201], On 29 March 2011, Prime Minister John Key and Christchurch Mayor Bob Parker announced the creation of the Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Authority (CERA) to manage the earthquake recovery, co-operating with the government, local councils and residents, under chief executive John Ombler. [48] A number of cars were crushed by falling debris. [60], The four-storey Pyne Gould Guinness (PGC) House[61] on Cambridge Terrace, headquarters of Pyne Gould Corporation, collapsed, with 18 casualties. The Christchurch quake was part of the ongoing Canterbury sequence that started with the Darfield quake, and its ground-shaking set a new record in New Zealand. Canterbury earthquake sequence, specifically data from the GeoNet database of processed strong motion station recordings (geonet.org.nz) and the extensive site investigation data that has been collected by researchers and practitioners throughout Christchurch over the past several years (see Canterbury Geotechnical Database, . (2015). The Commission examined issues with specific reference to the Canterbury Television (CTV), Pyne Gould Corporation (PGC), Forsyth Barr and Hotel Grand Chancellor buildings. The epicentre of this earthquake was located close to the town of Darfield, approximately 40 km west of Christchurch. [89], Several areas in and around Christchurch were deemed infeasible to rebuild due to earthquake damage resulting from soil liquefaction and rockslides. 2012) that resulted in 185 fatalities. quake hit like a 'bomb', Canadians say; Harper offers Canada's help", "Christchurch earthquake: David Cameron texts New Zealand counterpart", Chinese, Japanese and Filipino students feared dead in Christchurch rubble, "Obama sends U.S. disaster response team to New Zealand", "Fill The Basin raises more than $500,000", "Cricket: Vettori puts all memorabilia up for auction", "VIDEO: Huge payday for Canterbury Red Cross from SBW and Sky", "PM announces national memorial service for ChCh", "Prince William to address thousands at quake memorial", "Gillard, Abbott to attend Christchurch earthquake memorial", "Royal inquiry into Christchurch quake building collapses", "The Canterbury Earthquakes Royal Commission", "CTV royal commission finds deficiencies", "Christchurch will be 'world's most quake-safe city, "Commission dollars drained by Christchurch earthquakes", "Christchurch campervan village to house hundred", "Christchurch earthquake: Entire streets may be abandoned", "Mark Wilson (Principal of Cashmere High School) – Canterbury Earthquake – Checkpoint", "Seat of learning shifts to marquees and portacoms", "Tent-town campus planned for Canterbury University", "Pupils to return to shared sites in earthquake-stricken Christchurch", "1010 refugee pupils swell schools' rolls", "Repaired Linwood College ready for classes", "Seven Chch schools to close, 12 to merge", "New Zealand Cricket Offices Hit By Earthquake", "Plunket Shield rejigged in wake of earthquake", "Schedule shift saves team from Christchurch quake", "Crusaders withdraw from Hurricanes match – draw declared", "Trafalgar Park to be Crusaders' temporary home", "Canterbury Tactix need match, training venues", "Canterbury Tactix game moved to Rotorua", "NZRL consider Anzac test venue in wake of quake", "League: Anzac test shifted from Christchurch", "Christchurch earthquake: Law change needed to cancel census", "2013 Census announcement  – Media Release", "Quake barely touches likely 2031 head tally", "Before the 2011/12 earthquakes, Christchurch had overtaken Wellington to become New Zealand's second largest city", "Christchurch no longer second biggest city", "Investing in Christchurch 'doesn't stack up, "Brian Gaynor: Quake wake up call for disaster insurer", "Christchurch quake: EQC has enough money and 'reinsurance' to cover cost – English", "New Zealand's Earthquake May Become Costliest Insured Disaster Since 2008", "Disaster could cost insurance sector $12bn", "Quake injuries payout likely to be ACC's biggest ever", "Key Expects New Zealand Central Bank to Lower Rates, Sends Kiwi Tumbling", "The Canterbury Earthquakes: Scientific answers to critical questions", Christchurch earthquake official statements, Satellite radar images of earth deformation, "Preliminary Report from the Christchurch 22 Feb 2011 6.3mw Earthquake: Pre-1970s RC(reinforced concrete) and RCM(reinforced concrete blocks masonry) Buildings, and Precast Staircase Damage", Visual representation of Christchurch earthquakes since 4 September 2010, Lyttelton Road Tunnel Administration Building, Canterbury Earthquake Response and Recovery Act 2010, Fergana Valley (Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2011_Christchurch_earthquake&oldid=1000045256, Articles with dead external links from August 2015, Articles with failed verification from June 2019, Articles with incomplete citations from March 2012, CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. In Christchurch City during the Canterbury earthquake sequence, the dynamics between resilience and sustainability were certainly evident. The reaction to the statement sent the New Zealand dollar down. [136] A team of 55 Disaster Assistance and Rescue Team members from the Singapore Civil Defence Force were sent. [233] [28] The acceleration experienced in February 2011 would "totally flatten" most world cities, causing massive loss of life; in Christchurch, New Zealand's stringent building codes limited the disaster. [136] On 1 March, it was announced that the New South Wales Government would be donating A$1 million (NZ$1.3 million[175]) to the victims of the Christchurch earthquake. The earthquake generated a significant series of its own aftershocks. The earthquake caused widespread damage across Christchurch, killing 185 people[6][7] in the nation's fifth-deadliest disaster. The Civic, the council's third home, was heavily damaged in February and was demolished. [135] They also responded to fires, serious structural damage reports, and landslides working with structural engineers, seismologists and geologists, as well as construction workers, crane and digger operators and demolition experts. [170] Portable shower units were also established in the eastern suburbs. [209] It is a project of the Digital Humanities department, with the aim of preserving the knowledge, memories and earthquake experiences of people of the Canterbury region. The department responded to the situation by activating their crisis plan, forming 20 trauma teams. New Zealand's GNS Science has stated that the earthquake was part of the aftershock sequence that has been occurring since the September magnitude-7.1 quake, however a seismologist from Geoscience Australia considers it a separate event given its location on a separate fault system. Impact of a major disaster on the mental health of a well-studied cohort. In 2013, it was announced that the tower and ball would be restored, and that funds were to be sought from the community to rebuild the rest of the station. Christchurch's strongest local earthquake in more than a year may have been generated by the same fault that caused the damaging Boxing Day quake in 2010. Many heritage buildings were given red stickers after inspections. [49] In the central city, two buses were crushed by falling buildings. Japan sent 70 search-and-rescue personnel including specialists from the coastguard, police and fire fighting service, as well as three sniffer dogs. In March 2011 the government established The Canterbury Earthquakes Royal Commission to report on the causes of building failure as a result of the earthquakes as well as the adequacy of building codes and other standards for buildings in New Zealand Central Business Districts. The army provided desalination plants, and bottled supplies were sent in by volunteers and companies. 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