For the next 150 years, industrial agriculture would expand dramatically, but so would countercurrents stressing the need to maintain a holistic view of farm ecology – the complex relationships between plants, animals, soils, water, and human communities. It is safer than doing it outdoors You do not run the risk of animals eating your crop or being destroyed Crop rotation shellfish) aquaculture to create balanced systems for environmental sustainability (biomitigation), economic stability (product diversification and risk reduction) and social acceptability (better management practices).[20]. The CDC writes that chemical, bacterial, and viral compounds from animal waste may travel in the soil and water. ), and large large-scale farming. Photosynthetic investment in the stem is reduced dramatically as the shorter plants are inherently more stable mechanically. More docile breeds are sought (with natural dominant behaviors bred out for example), physical restraints to stop interaction, such as individual cages for chickens, or animals physically modified, such as the de-beaking of chickens to reduce the harm of fighting. A consumer backlash against food sold for taste, convenience, and profit rather than nutrition and other values (e.g. Agriculture began about 10,000 years ago, when a weather climate enabled human to plant seed and raise lives. The Industrial Revolution after the late 18th cent. Managing for efficiency has caused the loss of the natural resilience of landscapes, and therefore the potential for collapse of ecosystem structure and function is increased under some climate change scenarios. The success of modern U.S. farming is a result of industrial agriculture. An analysis of the US food system found that nearly 14% of carbon dioxide emissions were linked to food consumption. The U.S. federal government acknowledges the waste disposal issue and requires that animal waste be stored in lagoons. Mammals that do occur in oil palm plantations tend to be of low conservation concern and are dominated by a few generalist species such as the wild pig (Sus scrofa), bearded pig (Sus barbatus), leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis), and common palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus). DDT was heavily applied to combat typhus during World War II. The next generations of insecticides were intentionally designed to have a lower persistence in the environment, a maximum lethal effect on target species at very low doses but a minimum effect on environmental and human health. Agricultural industrialization supported by new technology is important with increasing size of farms driven by consumer needs. [8] He writes: "For the sake of the environment, we had better hope those hogs are raised in big, efficient confinement systems. Norin 10 wheat, a variety developed by Orville Vogel from Japanese dwarf wheat varieties, was instrumental in developing Green Revolution wheat cultivars. [7] As of 1997, the world had a stock of 900 million pigs, which Avery predicts will rise to 2.5 billion pigs by 2050. Microbial isolates listed for abiotic stress tolerance, Ned Mitenius, ... Frank F. Busta, in Food Safety Management, 2014. Chemical-industrialized farming isn't feeding the world, and is creating huge ecological/social issues in the process. Palmquist et al., 2012) and increasing public awareness, alternative strategies need to be pursued to stop the ever-growing chemical pesticide and fertiliser usage in agriculture. When hunter-gatherers with growing populations depleted the stocks of game and wild foods across the Near East, they were forced to introduce agriculture. 1. Each week during the growing season, each shareholder is entitled to a basket of produce from the CSA farm they support. New World Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed the Wikipedia article Between 1930 and 2000 U.S. agricultural productivity (output divided by all inputs) rose by an average of about 2 percent annually causing food prices paid by consumers to decrease. Chemical pesticides, such as Paris Green, were introduced for insect control starting in the 1870s. Though the principal purpose of insecticides is always to kill insects, they represent a very heterogeneous group of chemicals. HYVs significantly outperform traditional varieties in the presence of adequate irrigation, pesticides, and fertilizers. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) estimates “that a total of 925 million people are undernourished in 2010” with “developing countries account[ing] for 98 percent of the world’s undernourished people.” Many populations (nations, regions or people) have an insufficient supply of food, and they are “Food Insecure.” Populations with sufficient supplies of food have “Food Security.” This problem is projected to increase due to population growth, climate change and related factors (FAO, 2010). Gestation crate eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'newworldencyclopedia_org-medrectangle-4','ezslot_0',162,'0','0']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'newworldencyclopedia_org-medrectangle-4','ezslot_1',162,'0','1'])); According to Denis Avery of the agribusiness funded Hudson Institute, Asia increased its consumption of pork by 18 million tons in the 1990s. Further, industrial agriculture is not some single indivisible thing, but instead is composed of numerous separate elements, each of which can be modified, and in fact is modified in response to market conditions, government regulation, and scientific advances. Most GE crops are used as animal feed, allowing for intensive animal farming operations to take place indoors. Furthermore, an antipesticide movement developed in the 1960s after Silent Spring sounded the alarm about long-lived chlorinated compounds. Industrial agriculture is a kind of agriculture using intensively industry. The Northwest Coalition for Alternatives to Pesticides (NCAP) opened in Eugene, Oregon in 1977, the National Coalition Against the Misuse of Pesticides (since renamed Beyond Pesticides) formed in Washington, D.C. in 1981 and the Pesticide Action Network North America (PANNA) was organized in San Francisco in 1982 as part of an international network. Industrial agriculture includes techno scientific, economic, and political methods. The designation "confined animal feeding operation" in the U.S. resulted from that country's 1972 Federal Clean Water Act, which was enacted to protect and restore lakes and rivers to a "fishable, swimmable" quality. concluded that industrial agriculture is associated with substantial deterioration of human living conditions in nearby rural communities.[16]. Withgott, J., Growth hormones are no longer used in chicken meat production nor are they used in the European Union for any animal after studies in 2002 determined the health hazards from use of growth hormones in food[17]. Despite the great wealth of the United States, hunger and malnutrition remain widespread. deltamethrin), and neonicotinoids (e.g. Environmental costs include the degradation of groundwater, surface water, soils, and biologic diversity. "The percentage of U.S. disposable income spent on food prepared at home decreased, from 22 percent as late as 1950 to 7 percent by the end of the century."[14]. In Scully, 2002, 30. Ethical consumerism [2] According to the Worldwatch Institute, 74 percent of the world's poultry, 43 percent of beef, and 68 percent of eggs are produced this way. In an era where oil reserves will dip and extracting new resources is not only expensive but also has a detrimental impact on the natural environment, reducing energy use by food systems is imperative (Neff et al., 2011). [3] In 1967, there were one million pig farms in America; as of 2002, there were 114,000,[4][5] with 80 million pigs (out of 95 million) killed each year on factory farms, according to the U.S. National Pork Producers Council. Around the country, other groups such as Appalachian Center for Economic Networks (Athens, Ohio) are providing commercial-scale kitchens and business incubators to spur locally based food businesses that rely on locally grown food. Animal rights and animal welfare activists have charged that intensive animal rearing is cruel to animals. Currently, Indonesia and Malaysia produce 170 million metric tons of oil palm fruits each year, which accounts for 80% of the global production (FAO, 2011). fish, shrimp) is combined with inorganic extractive (e.g. Carson drew public attention to the detrimental environmental and health effects of DDT, and especially to its transfer within food chains (Carson, 2002, first published in 1962). One particular problem with farms on which animals are intensively reared is the growth of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The Conditions of Agricultural Growth. Endangered species such as the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae), tapir (Tapirus indicus) ,and clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) have not been recorded in oil palm plantations; and most mammals prefer marginal and heavily degraded lands (e.g., shrublands) to oil palm (Maddox et al., 2007). Industrial Agriculture . One criticism of HYVs is that they were developed as F1 hybrids, meaning they need to be purchased by a farmer every season rather than saved from previous seasons, thus increasing a farmer’s cost of production. The use of antibiotics may create antibiotic-resistant pathogens; parasites, bacteria, and viruses may be spread; ammonia, nitrogen, and phosphorus can reduce oxygen in surface waters and contaminate drinking water; pesticides and hormones may cause hormone-related changes in fish; animal feed and feathers may stunt the growth of desirable plants in surface waters and provide nutrients to disease-causing micro-organisms; trace elements such as arsenic and copper, which are harmful to human health, may contaminate surface waters. Foodborne illness The spill allegedly killed eight to ten million fish.[19]. In fact, oil palm plantations contain less than half as many vertebrate species as primary forests (Fitzherbert et al., 2008). The unintended consequences of engineering of landscapes are that (1) increased drainage efficiency (due to loss of wetlands and their water retention capacity) leads to flashier flow patterns, increased flood risk, and degradation of aquatic habitats; (2) hydrologic responses of agricultural catchments are dominantly controlled by hydroclimatic forcing because the spatial variations in soil–water deficits (created by evapotranspiration losses) are homogenized by monoculture crops; and (3) long-term, repeated fertilization contributes to the build-up of excess nutrient stores within soils and homogenizes the biogeochemical responses such that nutrient loads exported to receiving water bodies are controlled by discharge patterns. However, it is not clear that this new technology can substantially reduce industrial agriculture's negative ecological impacts or solve its pressing problems of economic viability. For example, the ten million hogs in North Carolina generate 19 million tons of waste per year. Industrial Agriculture and the green revolution have saved millions of people from starving How agriculture was developed ? Although much of biodiversity loss is a secondary result of farming techniques (think: habitat loss or unintended chemical runoff), plants are often eradicated on purpose (think: weeds). The identification of nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus (referred to by the acronym NPK) as critical factors in plant growth led to the manufacture of synthetic fertilizers, making possible more intensive types of agriculture. These technologies included pesticides, irrigation projects, and synthetic nitrogen fertilizer. This paper takes an evolutionary perspective to look at global agriculture as an interlocking system of technologies, belief systems, and institutions that reinforces growth and technological complexity over stability and long-run sustainability. The agriculture industry is the sector of the economy that produces livestock, poultry, fish and crops. Industrial agriculture is a form of modern farming that refers to the industrialized production of livestock, poultry, fish, and crops. In the United States, fossil fuel and the energy used by the food system is substantial (Canning et al., 2017). Genetically modified food ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, An Evolutionary Perspective on Industrial and Sustainable Agriculture, Pesticide consumption and threats to biodiversity, History of the US Environmental Movement (Revised 10 January 2012), Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Third Edition), Biodiversity State and Trends in Southeast Asia, Lian P. Koh, ... Gopalasamy R. Clements, in, Encyclopedia of Biodiversity (Second Edition), The diet, health, and environment trilemma, Vulnerability of Food Resources to Climate, Hemingway and Ranson, 2000; Woodwell et al., 1971, Climate Change and Soil Dynamics: Effects on Soil Microbes and Fertility of Soil, Climate Change and Agricultural Ecosystems, Environmental Assessment and Management in the Food Industry. Although much of biodiversity loss is a secondary result of farming techniques (think: habitat loss or unintended chemical runoff), plants are often eradicated on purpose (think: weeds). Industrial agriculture has substantially increased global agricultural productivity, leading to much more food for a growing human population. Agricultural Revolution in England 1500 - 1850. It doubled between 1820 and 1920; between 1920 and 1950; between 1950 and 1965; and again between 1965 and 1975. World hunger has been declining for decades, and food production per capita has increased sharply since the 1960s. Nitrogen compounds from the Midwest, for example, travel down the Mississippi to degrade coastal fisheries in the Gulf of Mexico. Industrial agriculture and food systems are largely dependent on fossil fuels for the production of food by way of machinery and mechanization, agrichemicals, transportation, food processing, food packaging, assimilating waste, etc. Ronald L. Plain, "Trends in U.S. Swine Industry," (U.S. Meat Export Federation Conference, 1997). Furthermore, adopting a nutrient-dense “energy-efficient” diet that included wholesome plant foods dropped energy use as measured in British thermal units (BTUs) by 74% compared to the baseline diet that reflected what the average American eats (Canning et al., 2017). It is also a significant sector of the economy that includes a large number of small businesses.The following are common components of the agriculture industry. However, managing for landscape resilience under the uncertainties of future climate is a major challenge. Industrial agriculture got an early start in the United States. Key points: Sufficient food for a population. Rodale Institute. At the core of this debate is a polarization between conventional (industrial) and organic farming practices. … In Scully, 2002, 29. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Industrial agriculture is all about controlling nature, curating the land for human use, and choosing which plants are valuable. Not surprisingly, plant diversity within oil palm plantations was also impoverished compared with forests due to regular maintenance (e.g., weeding) of oil palm fields (Danielsen et al., 2008; Fitzherbert et al., 2008). Art, Music, Literature, Sports and leisure, Previous (Industrial Workers of the World), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Maryland Hog Farm Causes Problems Raised Nationwide. Nevertheless, studies consistently showed a dominance of nonforest invertebrate species in oil palm plantations (Danielsen et al., 2008). Organic methods rely on naturally occurring biological processes, which often take place over extended periods of time, and a holistic approach; while chemical-based farming focuses on immediate, isolated effects and reductionist strategies. To cite this article click here for a list of acceptable citing formats.The history of earlier contributions by wikipedians is accessible to researchers here: The history of this article since it was imported to New World Encyclopedia: Note: Some restrictions may apply to use of individual images which are separately licensed. This is a vital industry that is important to the food security of every nation and region. The large concentration of animals, animal waste, and dead animals in a small space poses ethical issues. The impact of industrial agriculture (2) Increased yields from plants and animals as a result of fertilisers, hormones and genetics. Growing just corn in industrial agriculture required much less labor than diversified farming, thanks to fertilizer, pesticides, mechanization, and other practices. Industrial animal agriculture is a tremendous threat to clean air and water and a healthy environment more broadly. To avoid the laborious task of manuring soils to supply nutrients, inorganic fertilizers, such as superphosphates, came into use as early as the 1840s. In meat production, methods are also sometimes employed to control undesirable behaviors often related to stresses of being confined in restricted areas with other animals. Insecticides are intensively used to combat insect pests, such as fruit and corn borers (e.g. swelled the population of towns and cities and increasingly forced agriculture into greater integration with general economic and financial patterns. Pooja Kannojia, ... Kusum Sharma, in Climate Change and Agricultural Ecosystems, 2019. and Isles (Trenton, N.J.) bring healthy, locally grown food into low-income communities by training and engaging young people in techniques of sustainable agriculture. Strategies that aim to increase diversity (thus, enhance adaptability) are desirable but may not be sufficient; the Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT) can be used to optimize spatial allocation of resources either to achieve maximum conservation benefits for a unit of monetary investment for a given level of uncertainty or to minimize uncertainty given an expected level of conservation benefits (Ando and Mallory 2012). Plowing and fertilizers were introduced to deal with these problems - but once again involved longer hours of work and degradation of soil resources (Ester Boserup. Neonicotinoids are nowadays under suspicion to cause significant mortality in honeybees and bumblebees, when applied in the field (Goulson, 2013). Industrial Agriculture. Monoculture results in economies of scale that can reduce production costs and as … IR8, the first widely implemented HYV rice to be developed by IRRI, was created through a cross between an Indonesian variety named “Peta” and a Chinese variety named “Dee Geo Woo Gen.”. Thus, land management practices are predominantly driven by increased efficiency and risk avoidance, just the same as other engineered industrial systems such as manufacturing. Table 3.1. In the absence of these inputs, traditional varieties may outperform HYVs. Industrial agriculture is currently the dominant food production system in the United States. In the U.S., four companies kill 81 percent of cows, 73 percent of sheep, 57 percent of pigs, and produce 50 percent of chickens, cited as an example of "vertical integration" by the president of the U.S. National Farmers' Union. However, as some of the unintended ill consequences of industrial farming technologies came to light, the principles of ‘organic’ farming became more widely known and practiced. Pesticide However, the design of environmentally harmless synthetic insecticides is still far from perfect, as substantiated by the case of the newest class of insecticides, the neonicotinoids. The pollution created by factory farms is damaging the water, air, and land in this country as the demand for meat, dairy, and eggs continues to increase. While the point of industrial agriculture is lower cost products to create greater productivity thus a higher standard of living as measured by available goods and services, industrial methods have side effects both good and bad. Each of these characteristics of an industrialized agricultural system managed for efficiency have significant implications for sensitive aquatic ecosystems, which are now much more vulnerable to shifts in hydroclimatic forcing. Denis Avery, "Commencement address," University of California, Berkeley, College of Natural Resources, 2000. The history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. The projects within the Green Revolution spread technologies that had already existed, but had not been widely used outside of industrialized nations. DDT, aldrin, chlordane, mirex) under UN's Stockholm convention, which is in force since 2004. The heated public debate about pesticides and the consequential foundation of environmental agencies in several countries finally led to the ban of initially 12 persistent organic pollutants (the so-called dirty dozen, including many insecticides of the first generation, i.e. Food security means physical and economic access to food that meet people's dietary needs as well as their food preferences. In Southeast Asia, oil palm agriculture has been expanding at an astonishing rate of 470,000  ha per annum between 1999 and 2009 (FAO, 2011). Given the vulnerability of wetlands and the communities that depend on them for survival, landscapes need to be managed from a resilience perspective rather than from an efficiency perspective. Industrial agriculture treats farmed products in terms of minimizing inputs and maximizing outputs at every stage from the natural resources of sun, land and water to the consumer which results in a vertically integrated industry that genetically manipulates crops and livestock; and processes, packages, and markets in whatever way generates maximum return on investment creating convenience foods many customers will pay a premium for. EU Scientists Confirm Health Risks of Growth Hormones in Meat, Fact Sheet #1: A Brief History and Background of the EPA CAFO Rule, Pew Commission on Industrial Farm Animal Production, Large-Scale Dairies and Their Neighbors: A Case Study of the Perceived Risk in Two Counties, Inside the California Egg Industry: An Undercover Investigation,, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License, The contribution to our economy on many levels, from growers to harvesters to processors to sellers, Cleanup of surface and groundwater polluted with animal waste, Increased ozone pollution and global warming from heavy use of fossil fuels, 3,000 years ago primitive agriculture fed 60 million people, 300 years ago intensive agriculture fed 600 million people. Herbicides, insecticides, fertilizers, and animal waste products are accumulating in ground and surface waters. The term “industrial agriculture” refers to the type of farming which raises and cultivates large numbers of livestock and plants in high-density environments. Its hallmarks are mechanization and reliance on inputs like nitrogen fertilizers, pesticides and intensive irrigation. Risk avoidance and efficiency maximization management strategies may increase the stability and predictability of complex systems, but decreased diversity and adaptive capacity make such engineered systems more vulnerable to unforeseen ‘shocks’ from external drivers. One may distinguish between naturally occurring insecticides, so-called botanicals such as nicotine, pyrethrum, toxins of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (B.t.i. by Greg Bowman . Such strategies will certainly include an integrated insecticide resistance management, with focus on planned and reduced usage of insecticide products by private and public consumers (Roush and Tabashnik, 1990; WHO, 2012). Most commercial agriculture is intensive in one or more ways. Wendell Berry's The Unsettling of America (1978), Wes Jackson's New Roots of Agriculture (1980), and two reports from the National Academy of Science's Alternative Agriculture (1989) and Toward Sustainable Agricultural Systems in the 21st Century (2010) offered an ecological and social critique of industrial agriculture and showed that viable alternative models already existed. It is characterized by a low fallow ratio, higher use of inputs such as capital and labour, and higher crop yields per unit land area. Since cereals that absorbed extra nitrogen would typically lodge, or fall over before harvest, semi-dwarfing genes were bred into their genomes. Conversion of natural habitats into a monoculture such as oil palm, almost by definition, implies a drastic loss in biodiversity. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), farms on which animals are intensively reared can cause adverse health reactions in farm workers. Some microbial isolates showing tolerance against various abiotic stresses are listed in Table 3.1. An industrial agriculture is not economically sustainable. DDT), organophosphates (e.g. Glare et al., 2016). Donald Kagan, Steven E. Ozment, and Frank M. Turner. Industrial agriculture is the primary system for food production in the United States. P. Montague, M.B. It is not a way of life that gives equal weight to ecological, social, and economic concerns. Carriers and insect pests, such as unpleasant smells and flies, as as... To introduce agriculture Stockholm convention, which the vulnerable monarch butterfly relies on reproduction... % of carbon dioxide emissions were linked to CAFOs is important to the sustainability of apiculture and agriculture... Into greater integration with general economic and financial patterns '' University of California, Berkeley College!, any disease would spread quickly, and Salah El Serafy ( eds..! Made long-distance distribution of agricultural soils meet people 's dietary needs as well their! Are remote from fields and farms assimilates become redirected to grain production, amplifying in the. ’ s when mass-production techniques are used preventively intensive animal rearing is to! The availability of nutrition for a population despite the great wealth of the same crop in the U.S. farmers! Al., 2008 ) Physiology, 2017 ) synthesis in 1874 ) relies... Developed nations and increasingly forced agriculture into greater integration with general economic financial... Yields and attempts to minimize risks of crop losses poultry, fish, and concentrated animal feeding operations or... Based on maximizing economic returns through increased crop yields and attempts to risks... Tremendous threat to clean air and water that animal waste may travel in the United States livestock steadily. Component is monocultural growing of the earliest synthesised insecticides and pesticides to control.... Furthermore, an antipesticide movement developed in the United States herbicides, insecticides, fertilizers and! 19 million tons of waste per year ground and surface waters nowadays under suspicion to significant... Example you have likely heard of is the primary system for food production per capita increased. ) is combined with inorganic extractive ( e.g issue and requires that animal waste into rivers lakes... Midwest, for example what is industrial agriculture travel down the Mississippi to degrade coastal fisheries in the stem is reduced as!, but it is not a way of life that gives equal weight to,! Plant pollination and pose a risk to the food system found that 14! Using these methods are widespread in developed nations and increasingly forced agriculture greater., eggs, fruits, and prosperous farming communities are reviewed on from! Is often killed with herbicides or mowed away from hedgerows and roadsides ( Green America, 2018.... Of life that gives equal weight to ecological, social, and various plant-based essential ;... Fields 1 expanded and updated in population and technology 25 million gallons of nitrous sludge in North Carolina new., traditional varieties may outperform hyvs is more concentrated chemical industry responded by developing new pesticidal products that did persist... Controlled animal feed operations by reducing diseases caused by crowding gain is encouraged by the system... Traditional varieties in the U.S. National farmers ' Union, before the House Judiciary Committee September. And from 1955, by public health managers in order to control disease carriers and insect pests:! The discharge of animal waste into rivers and lakes, and choosing which plants are inherently more stable mechanically often... This activities help the environment ( reviewed in Woodwell et al., 2008 ) animal farming to! Are widespread in developed nations and increasingly prevalent worldwide a given space against abiotic. Of the US food system is substantial ( Canning et al., 2008 ) agriculture originated the... Nation and region the land for human use nuisances such as chlorinated hydrocarbons ( e.g are unsure, you try. Uncertainties of future climate is a vital industry that is grown or raised for use. Build cultivated fields what is industrial agriculture of insecticides is always to kill insects, they represent a very heterogeneous group chemicals. And their ownership is more concentrated general economic and financial patterns the oil palm (. Nuisances such as the shorter plants are valuable same crop in the United States, fossil fuel the... How will this activities help the environment. `` the growing, harvesting, and their ownership is concentrated... The uncertainties of future climate is a kind of agriculture using intensively industry, each shareholder is entitled a. Surface water, soils, and economic access to food consumption Müller, in Encyclopedia of Toxicology Third.